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The moment I came across Milk and Honey was a definitive moment in my life; I realized how fascinated I was about the publishing industry. I read poetry in high school, analyzing form and meaning in Emily Dickinson poems or Shakespeare’s sonnets, but it was always so confusing to me. I often wondered why poets couldn’t just get to the point or describe their thoughts in metaphors that make some sort of sense within the first read. To my surprise, Rupi Kaur and this poetry book happened, the poetic phenomenon that changed the poetry community. The feeling was instant, ironic to what this new age in poetry publication is called: Instapoetry.

 

Instapoetry is an adaptation of traditional poetic ideals into a transformative Internet subgenre. Poets have turned to Instagram, a popular social media platform, to share excerpts of their work in hopes of publication. Instapoetry refutes traditional poetic forms, and instead, polarizes a new style that entwines art with literature. Molly McElwee, in an article for Gibraltar Magazine, shares that Instapoetry is the use of this “photo-sharing platform [giving] poetry a much-welcomed fresh feel… the poems are bite-size, they fit within the square Instagram frame; their font is carefully selected, an aesthetic extension of their work. And, when well done, the platform has skyrocketed amateur writers to the literary mainstream.” [1] Since Kaur’s arrival, it was as if poetry was culturally relevant again. According to Booknet Canada, Kaur continues to dominate all book sales across the world, where “for the second year in a row, unit sales in the poetry category increased significantly. [2] In 2016, poetry sales increases by 79% over 2015, and between 2016 and 2017 the units sold increased by another 154%.” [2] Andrews McMeel Publishing announced that Milk and Honey “sold more than one million copies in print after just over a year… and are currently in their 16th printing.” [3] In this age of new media revitalizing poetry, shaping the poetry publishing industry, what is the legitimacy of Instapoetry? Thus, in the scope of this essay, I strive to explore what Instapoetry means in publishing, and defend the relevancy of Instapoetry, analyzing how it saves the poetry community by counteracting conventional poetic norms.

 

Michael Warner, in his scholarly paper, “Publics and Counterpublics” foregrounds a crucial theory that helps explain how Instapoetry has been so successful and unstoppable. Warner explains that a public is self-organized, a “space of discourse organized by nothing other than discourse itself” and “the circularity is essential to the phenomenon.” [4] In order to create this circularity, there must be participants that contribute to the discourse, which in this case are the poets and the readers. Warner considers that “a public is never just a congeries of people… it must first of all have some way of organizing itself as a body, and of being addressed in discourse.” [4] To organize itself, the public is “a social place created by the reflexive circulation of discourse.” It is constantly interactive and linking social interpretation together because social networks are a collective effort and exists in relationships between all participants. Instapoets produce Instapoetry solely for the intention of the poems being read. Without the Instareader, the poems would mean nothing and would not be circulated. This has become an important criterion for the public sphere to function coherently. Moreover, Warner explains that “a public is poetic world-making.” The contributions to a public are often performative acts, that the engagement itself can transform and shape the public. A unique correlation exists between the public and the text. An example is the form in Instapoems that can be adapted and used in other discourses, like Kaur’s iconic line breaks inspiring the works of several new Instapoets: Atticus, Nikita Gill, Amanda Lovelace. Ultimately, it’s quite intriguing and comforting for Instapoets to put their work on 800 million and counting content- creator generated social network service as if a guarantee that there will be a certain readership if the right amount of tags and hashtags are used. Instapoetry will always be a public between the intersection of Instagram and the Poetry Community, and in order to have an “on-going life”, it must have the supporters that continue to produce and contribute to the discourse.

 

In midst of this digital technology storm, it is uncanny to believe that technology has no effect on books, reading, and publishing. Technology is a blessing and a curse. It strives to simplify our lives, making basic human tasks almost disappear by the robotic programming of completing a task within the touch of a button (i.e. meeting someone face to face versus a quick text). The introduction of eBooks led many people in the industry to believe that print publication would be dead; however, studies show that specifically in poetry, Canada had the greatest sales yet in 2016. [6] Accordingly, Andrews McNeel Publishing proves to be the most successful publishing house that understands the market of Instapoetry and uses it to their advantage, publishing “eleven of the top twenty best-selling poets last year.” [6]. Kirsty Melville, president of Andrews McNeel, explains that “as a publisher, we go with where the culture goes.” [6] She continues with stating that “the digital age has facilitated a connection between writers and readers. In addition, although these poets share their work online, publication in book form is also cherished. The book is one of the oldest, most successful, and most valued inventions for sharing ideas.” [6] It is as if Instapoetry acts as a complementary tool that revitalizes poetry genre in the publishing industry, where readers are compelled by these strong desires and interests after reading Instapoetry to do something about these feelings, to physically purchase the poetry book and contribute to the monetizing of poetry. Evidently, Instapoetry becomes a gateway drug that revives the public’s cultural interest in poetry, and by this inherent interest in poetry book sales, the poetry community lives on.

 

So why is wrong with Instapoetry, in the eyes of academia? Why is it hated on or seen as “a pop phenomenon with little connection to the literary world”? [7] Vinu Casper shares this fair and common critique on Instapoetry: “Poets who spend years honing their craft, carefully writing and rewriting every line, practicing their performance over and over before they take to stage, are being beaten to the punch by influencers with a steady social media presence and masses of followers. These so-called Instapoets get away with blanket statements and empty metaphors under the guise of poetry.” [5] She questions if these simple posts are more “for sake of engagement” as if a marketing ploy that schemes for likes or comment responses from Instagrammers instead of the poetry itself. Similarly, Tham Young, an English teacher critiques Instapoetry, calling it “fidget spinner poetry”, as if it demonstrates a millennial flaw. He suggests that millennials uphold short attention spans that make it harder to critically comprehend and analyze traditional works of poetry. [8] Instapoetry is then seen as laziness, that the incompetency to create a similar product of poetry based off of ancient standards is deemed as illegitimate or unworthy of the same value and praise. This furthers the generation gap within the poetic community, that the older traditionalist poets refuse to accept or learn to understand new styles of poetry. Instead, they turn this misunderstanding into hatred and exclusivity, a poetic culture war.

 

As a fellow Instapoet, I like to think that there are many reasons why Instapoetry is so favourable; an important one being that “they pack so much meaning into so little language.” [3]. They entwine “the internet’s love of an inspirational quote with artful typography and immediate share-ability.” [3]. One Instagram account called @Poets follow Kaur’s outburst of simplistic aesthetically pleasing visual/ phrases.  It features many poets that write one-liners/ one stanzas that sound like every day phrases or thoughts. An example is (insert image): “I aspire to be/ an old man/ with an old wife/ laughing at old jokes/ from a wild youth.” written by Atticus, a current popular Instapoet following the steps of Kaur. [9]

Or another that is simply: “you are in/ everything/ I see/” titled “six word poem – poets”. [10] As much as it sounds like everyday dialogue or thoughts, they are very relatable, shareable, “screenshot-able”, and “easy to recall if one is in need of an inspirational quote or late in the day mantra or an impulsive Saturday night tattoo.” [11]. They can be instantly felt and emoted, and if it is so easy to relate to them, it sparks the heavy desire to read more or read on; both that contribute to supporting poetry publishing. As well, Instapoetry becomes more accessible to the everyday reader as more contemporary themes are addressed: love, culture, feminism, gun violence, domestic violence, war, racism, LGBTQ, and other social justice topics. Perhaps it isn’t about replacing traditional works or forms, but using the current medium to foster the appropriate cultural relevance or representation to the era in which the new media poetry is produced in. It’s an “innovative progression” [11], one that lures new readers into the inherent simple language in Instapoetry and understands deeper meanings about the life around them, all while using flowery language and poignant metaphors.

 

Whether it’s continuing to buy print poetry books in the store or read online content, I like to believe that in the end, poetry is poetry; art is art. Who has the power to constitute what is right and what is wrong if arts and literature are subjective to the reader? In a world that becomes more and more complicated, isn’t it nice to come across poetry that can be simple yet make the reader feel an intense array of emotions? It’s not really different from older poets like Keats, Shakespeare, and Byron; Instapoets continue to “examine their present moment and turning that moment into art.” [11]. They lead a cultural revolution of introducing new, raw, emotional storytellers, while utilizing a simpler writing style, into the community. Sometimes I also find a hard time understanding how posts like “you are in/ everything/ I see.” can be seen as poetry, but perhaps there’s a poetic aesthetic to finding meaning in something so simple. It’s these wonders that continues our curiosities with poetry and makes us continue reading, scrolling.

https://www.instagram.com/p/BPmXIbIj0qC/?utm_source=ig_web_button_share_sheet

 

WORKS CITED

[1] McElwee, Molly. “INSTAPOETRY – The Age of Scrolling Literature.” The Gibraltar    Magazine, 25 Oct. 2017, thegibraltarmagazine.com/instapoetry-age-scrolling-literature/.

[2] Canada, Booknet. “Poetry Sales Increase Again in 2017.” BookNet Canada, Mar. 2018, www.booknetcanada.ca/press-room/2018/3/7/poetry-sales-increase-again-in-2017.

[3] Flood, Alison. “Poet Rupi Kaur’s Milk and Honey Sells More than Half a Million Copies.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 13 Sept. 2016, www.theguardian.com/books/2016/sep/13/poet-rupi-kaurs-milk-and-honey-sells-more-than-half-a-million-copies.

[4] Warner, Michael. “Publics and Counterpublics (abbreviated version).” Quarterly Journal of Speech 88.4 (2002): 413-25. Web. 20 Jan. 2017. <http://knowledgepublic.pbworks.com/f/ warnerPubCounterP.pdf>.

[5] Casper, Vinu. “Challenging the Insta Poet Community.” PSU Vanguard, 13 Apr. 2018, psuvanguard.com/challenging-the-insta-poet-community/.

[6] Maher, John. “Can Instagram Make Poems Sell Again?” PublishersWeekly.com, Feb. 2018, www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/publisher-news/article/75976- can-Instagram-make-poems-sell-again.html.

[7] Millner, Maggie. “Instapoets Prove Powerful in Print.” Poets & Writers, 2 Aug. 2018, www.pw.org/content/instapoets_prove_powerful_in_print.

[8] Gurtis, Alex. “Instapoetry – the Polarizing New Poetry Style That Is Making Poetry Relevant Again.” The Odyssey Online, 10 Jan. 2018, www.theodysseyonline.com/instapoetry.

[9] https://www.instagram.com/p/Bni6ktpgki-/?utm_source=ig_web_button_share_sheet

[10] https://www.instagram.com/p/Bndd8SIg7Ei/?utm_source=ig_web_button_share_sheet

[11] Miller, E. Ce. “We Need To Talk About Why People Hate ‘InstaPoets’ So Much – And Why They’re Wrong.” Bustle, Bustle, 31 July 2018, www.bustle.com/p/are-instapoets- destroying-the-art-form-reviving-it-a-defense-of-social-media-poetry-8530426.

Who are romance readers?

 

A romance reader is often adjudged as being a single, cat lady in need of a man, or they’re someone who lacks romance in real life, or they are nice people, reading stupid books. Maya Rodale debunks these myths in her article, ‘Who Is the Romance Novel Reader?’ Contrary to the popular belief, the romance readers are educated, working women, averaging between ages 30-55, earning about $55,000 a year, successfully manage career and households and are usually in a relationship (Rodale 2016).

 

According to survey results from Romance Writers of America, 84 percent of romance readers are women and 16 percent are men — up from 9 percent a few years ago. The romance industry is large — more than half of the mass market paperbacks sold in the U.S. are romance — and its readership is vast as well (RWA 2015). Romance fiction is the most read genre, with the industry drawing $1.44 billion in sales in 2012, and sales are estimated to be $1.35 billion in 2013 (Patel 2014).

 

Romance is often considered a ‘lowbrow’ form of writing & readership. Who coined it first? No one knows. Maybe to understand this disdain attached to romance books and its readership, one must reflect on the last 200 years and the evolution of women’s fiction. I remember reading romances as a teenager, often covered in non-decrepit brown paper, to avoid being labeled as the ludicrous ‘romance reader’ or worse—an escapist. Even though it dawned on me that my reading material supposedly lacked in literary value and was colloquially termed as trash; I had no qualms in pursuing my happily ever after foraging.

 

Critic and literary historians have rationally subscribed to the view that readers are either highbrow or lowbrow. It’s usually believed that trained and untrained minds do not share the same taste when it comes to reading habits. The literary elite question the purpose of reading and the effect of lowbrow literature on ignorant minds.

 

Victor Nell, in his book, Lost In A Book, refutes this belief and labels it ‘The Elitist Fallacy’. According to him, the two groups of readers—highbrow or lowbrow, do not exist. He argues that a sophisticated reader will often enjoy deeply felt and delicately wrought literature; the same person is likely to lose themselves in a Harlequin romance during a long airplane journey (Nell, The Elitist Fallacy 1988).

 

As a child, when one first starts reading, the focus is on language and stringing the words correctly to form coherent meaning. A mature reader attains fluency in language and gains higher level of emotional engagement with the text. This is usually the tipping point where a young reader moves beyond the encouragement of parents and teachers and takes up reading as a voluntary habit (M. Wolf 2007). For me, this tipping point happened while reading Bet Me by Jennifer Crusie. The plot revolved around a regular sized woman, Min Dobbs, and her quest to avoid doughnuts & men pretending to be doughnuts. Min was smart, funny and real. This is when I fell in love with the idea of love. My point being, everyone has a tipping point when venturing into the magical world of books. What they end up reading depends a lot on who’s guiding them or where their natural affinity lies.

 

To better understand the romance reader, we must first understand the concept of ludic reading. Why romance readers read, what they read.

 

‘Ludic’ or ‘absorbed’ reading is often identified as a state in which readers become oblivious to the world around them, usually willingly. Some readers read like this, others can’t. For readers with the ability to become so absorbed in a book, aesthetic quality has little to do with enjoyment. The word Ludic comes from Latin Ludo, meaning ‘I play’. Ludic reading corresponds to the pleasure reading, reminding us that reading is a playful activity, is intrinsically motivated and usually engaged in for its own sake (Nell, The Insatiable Appetite 1988). It would be safe to say that romance readers are ludic readers to highlight the engagement and trance like absorption that can result during reading a great novel. This pleasure derives, in part, from novels’ intense components of emotion and fantasy, such that readers’ imaginative engagement with the story shapes who they understand themselves to be (Roach 2016).

 

In her book, Proust and the Squid, Maryanne Wolf craftily inserts an excerpt from Proust’s book, On Reading and asks the reader to read the text as fast as they can.

 

There are perhaps no days of our childhood we lived so fully as those . . . we spent with a favorite book. Everything that filled them for others, so it seemed, and that we dismissed as a vulgar obstacle to a divine pleasure: the game for which a friend would come to fetch us at the most interesting passage; the troublesome bee or sun ray that forced us to lift our eyes from the page or to change position; the provisions for the afternoon snack that we had been made to take along and that we left beside us on the bench without touching, while above our head the sun was diminishing in force in the blue sky; the dinner we had to return home for, and during which we thought only of going up immediately afterward to finish the interrupted chapter, all those things with which reading should have kept us from feeling anything but annoyance, on the contrary they have engraved in us so sweet a memory (so much more precious to our present judgment than what we read then with such love), that if we still happen today to leaf through those books of another time, it is for no other reason than that they are the only calendars we have kept of days that have vanished, and we hope to see reflected on their pages the dwellings and the ponds which no longer exist (M. Wolf 2007).

 

After reading the above text, Ms. Wolf asks the reader to analyze what they were thinking while reading the paragraph. She claims that Proust successfully conjures up the reader’s long-stored memories of books; the secret places they hid in, to read. Perhaps took them to the moments they spent reading underneath a tree, eating their favorite snack, completely lost in a trance; reading for the pleasure of reading (M. Wolf 2007).

 

Similarly, a romance reader has the ability of ‘Passing over’, a term used by theologian John Duane, describing a reader’s ability to step into the shoes of the character; be it a knight readying for battle, or how a heroine behaves, how an evildoer can regret a wrongdoing. The moment this happens; the reader is no longer limited by the confines of their own thinking.

 

When you read the above paragraph from Proust’s book, you engaged an array of cognitive processes like attention, memory, visuals, auditory and linguistic processes (M. Wolf 2007). Romance readers go through this process quite seamlessly. Even though, it is argued that romance fiction is repetitive and formulaic, but the reader simply wants the rush of familiar, yet elusive, euphoria that comes with finishing a great love story.

 

The good news for publishers is that romance readers are singularly voracious and loyal. A recent Nielsen study reported that around 15% of the genre’s fans buy new books at least once a week; 6% do so more than once per week. These core romance fans are avid readers who stay very loyal to the genre. Moreover, 25% of buyers read romance more than once a week, and nearly half do so at least once a week; only 20% read romance less than once a month (Nielsen 2015). Where an average American reads 12 books a year, a genre reader reads as many 20 titles in a single month (Ha 2016).

 

Considering the sheer volume of consumption of romance, why don’t more readers admit to reading them?

 

Perhaps the answer to this question can be found in the history of mass culture. Mass culture is a term that plays on the wide self-belief that there is an inverse relationship between the quality and quantity of culture. It has been deemed as being incorrect by G.H. Lewis who argues that there is no empirical evidence whatsoever that mass culture harms its consumers. (Lewis 1978). Since the sixteenth century, Western views of correct use of time and sinfulness of worldly pleasures have been powerfully influenced by religion, especially, Puritanism. The use of time and money, on anything not related to God-ly pursuits, was frowned upon and squandering away money for profane works of fiction was against the religious ethics. This belief has trickled down through centuries (Nell, Plague of Spirit, Death of Mind: Pleasure reading and the Social value System 1978). Women fiction was, and to an extent still is, given a cursory brush off.

 

These issues do affect the social and personal determinants of the romance reader’s choice of reading material and how they feel about this choice. Most romance readers see themselves as book addicts, like cigarette smokers, and feel compelled to justify their choices. Often believing that admitting to reading such books would alter how people perceive them, and run the risk of being tagged as ‘frivolous’. This is quite unfortunate because the idea of what is highbrow and lowbrow is skewed. Romance books are often labeled as trash, on the basis of being unoriginal, predictive, depraved or formulaic. While at the same time the same aesthetic is applauded as art, be it Titian’s Venus of Urbino or Bernini’s Rape of Persephone, where sexuality is celebrated or the repetitive reproduction of ‘Madonna & Child’ that held generations of artists in rapture. The interest or arousal boost one gets from such art is similar to what a romance reader derives from reading a novel. Yet, they are world apart as far as perceived literary value goes.

 

The fact that romance readers read really fast tends to suggest that they merely skim the text and do not sink between the lines, as a non-fiction reader would. To ascertain the credibility of this assumption, we must examine the relationship between reading speed and ludic reading. Reading speed is a function of text and comprehension. In a lab experiment, Nell engaged a group of readers to read three paragraphs of increasing difficulty, while pressing a buzzer at regular intervals. It would be an obvious assumption that readers pressed the buzzer more promptly while reading easier text, considering that it requires lesser attention. It would be a wrong assumption. The experiment threw light on the fact that as the difficulty of the text increased, the reader’s speed decreased and they became more susceptible to outside disturbances. This happened because comprehension failed to take hold of the reader’s attention and left them somewhat akin to a tourist who is listening to a news broadcast in a foreign language (Nell, Reading ability and reading habits 1978). Romance readers usually read fast because they understand the language of romance narrative, and not because the reading material is sub-par or lowbrow.

 

So, if the constraints of religious ethics were removed and a highbrow reader was marooned on a deserted island with bundles of romance novels, their covers stripped off, would the highbrow reader succumb to reading for pleasure, relaxation and reading trance? Your guess is as good as mine.

 

In my opinion, romance readers do themselves disservice by relegating their reading choices to trashy or lowbrow. Reading is a gift and an acquired skill. It should be able to serve us in a spectrum of ways. A reader can oscillate between complex, beautifully written literary works and just as well-written, poignant tales of love, without having to justify their choices. The debate between highbrow and lowbrow literature has been raging for centuries. The lines between the two have been blurring as the middlebrow literature is emerging. The romance reader, meanwhile, is lost in their kindle, away from all judgment and is enjoying a thrilling, imaginary ride.

 

William Faulkner once famously said, “Perhaps they were right putting love into books. Perhaps it could not live anywhere else.”

 

Perhaps he was right.

 

Anumeha Gokhale

MPub 2017

Works Cited

Ha, Thu-Huong. Maverick women writers are upending the book industry and selling millions in the process. 07 22, 2016. https://qz.com/711924/maverick-women-are-upending-the-book-industry-and-selling-millions-in-the-process/ (accessed 10 25, 2017).

Lewis, G. H. “The Sociology of Popular Culture George H. Lewis.” Sage Publications, 1978.

Nell, Victor. “Plague of Spirit, Death of Mind: Pleasure reading and the Social value System.” In Lost in a Book, by Victor Nell, 26-30. Yale University Press, 1978.

Nell, Victor. “Reading ability and reading habits.” In Lost in a book, by Victor Nell, 84-97. Yale University Press, 1978.

Nell, Victor. “The Elitist Fallacy.” In Lost In A Book, by Victor Nell, 4-6. Yale University Press, 1988.

Nell, Victor. “The Insatiable Appetite.” In Lost In A Book, by Victor Nell, 2. Yale University Press, 1988.

Nielsen. LITERARY LIAISONS: WHO’S READING ROMANCE BOOKS? 10 08, 2015. http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/news/2015/literary-liaisons-whos-reading-romance-books.html (accessed 10 25, 2017).

Patel, Sital S. Read lowbrow fiction in public: Novels like ‘Fifty Shades of Grey’ spark sales on e-readers. 07 22, 2014. http://blogs.marketwatch.com/themargin/2014/07/25/romance-novels-like-fifty-shades-of-grey-ignite-sales-on-e-readers/?link=instory (accessed 10 25, 2017).

Roach, Catherine M. ” Going Native: When the Academic Is (Also) the Fan.” In Happily Ever After – The Romance Story in Popular Culture, by Catherine M. Roach, 28-32. Indiana University Press, 2016.

Rodale, Maya. Who Is the Romance Novel Reader? 05 07, 2016. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/maya-rodale/who-is-the-the-romance-novel-reader_b_7192588.html (accessed 10 24, 2017).

RWA. Romance Writers of America – Romance Statistics. 2015. https://www.rwa.org/p/cm/ld/fid=580 (accessed 09 28, 2017).

Wolf, Marryanne. “The ‘Natural History’ of Reading Development.” In Proust and the Squid, by Maryanne Wolf, 108-33. HarperCollins, 2007.

Wolf, Maryanne. “Reading Lessons From Proust And The Squid.” In Proust and the Squid, by Mayanne Wolf, 3-17. HarpeerCollins Publishers, 2007.

 

Just last year, around forty books became films (Vestal) with The Martian going on to win a Golden Globe. And after spending more than two years on the New York Times bestsellers list, Ransom Riggs’ debut novel Miss Peregrine’s Home for Peculiar Children from Quirk Books, will be released this September as a film by Tim Burton. Rights are being bought left and right by big-name directors, and fans are seeing beloved characters come to life. Need we have to touch on the ever-expanding Marvel Cinematic Universe, which basically has the next five years filled with blockbusters? 

martian peculiar

Although adapting books to films are firmly part of the publishing industry’s backbone, another mode of storytelling called transmedia storytelling also help the industry stay relevant as well. Commonly mistaken to mean the same thing, adaptations and transmedia refer to two different ways to tell stories. An “adaptation” means a text is altered or amended for filming (OED), while “transmedia storytelling” is using multiple platforms to continue a single narrative (Rutledge). Both positively contribute to publishing, more specifically the continuance of print, in different ways.

 

This article will hopefully convince you that, when it comes down to it, print won’t die due to both of these storytelling modes, as the move from screen to print offers a more enriching entertainment experience. While sitting through a two and half hour movie may be exciting (until your behinds hurt), sitting down with a book adapted from a film is often more rewarding as there is more room to dive into details not cinematically covered. And when it comes to transmedia, stories are built upon, worlds are expanded, and the experience continues regardless of whether or not the film (or TV series) finishes.

 

Within the last three decade or so, novelizations of films have entered the marketplace as regular promotion for a majority of major releases (Mahlknecht, 138). Often, films based on books are re-released with new covers depicting the recognizable movie poster, trying to attract audiences. “A look at the cover of any given novelization inevitably suggests the film more than anything else” (141); however, beneath the surface there is often a divergent from the final film material. As stated in Mahlknecht’s article, the writer of the novelization “rarely gets to see even a rough cut of the film than the studio commissioned him or her to novelize” (141). This allows for more creativity when crafting the story as the writer is not simply regurgitating the film on to paper. They also often differ from the films because, if the writer is privy to the script it is usually an earlier draft. Because these books are simultaneously released with the films, they include scenes that never made it into the final cut (Chicago Reader, Jones), giving readers a chance to experience the story in a different way. For Greg Cox, a longtime “film novelizer”, he often creates novels from very little information provided by the film company. For example, when creating a 300-page novel he is often only privy to a 110-page script (Hazlitt, Sloan). And even if the novel isn’t based on an earlier script, they still give readers a rewarding experience.

 

“Fleshed out with a greater attention to character backstory and more descriptive action sequences” (Vanity Fair, Suskind), these novels offer fans more connectivity to the stories they enjoy. Popular novelizer Alan Dean Foster, who has written the famous novelization of Alien is a perfect example of creating a story beyond a film:

 

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The opening scene of his novelization of Alien depicts the crew members in “hypersleep” on the way to Earth. Foster takes the opportunity to describe their dreams and flesh out their backstories—when they finally wake, the reader has more background on them than the film could provide. (Hazlitt, Sloan)

 

 

 

 

Reading a novelization of a film is also an opportunity to relive the excitement and enthusiasm experienced the first time around; something any fan would dive at (Vanity Fair, Suskind). There is also an appeal to novelizations because publishers already see a built-in audience. Katy Wild, the editorial director of Titan Publishing Group Ltd., says that, like the movies these books are simply another means of entertainment (Suskind), which people still seek out regardless of the digital age we live in. Some recent examples of novelizations that have taken off are the ones written by Greg Cox, who authored Godzilla, Dark Knight Rises, and Man of Steel; all of which sold steadily with much of their audience being ones who watched the films, with Man of Steel and Dark Knight Rises reaching best-seller status (Yahoo! Movies, Chaney).

 

Screen Shot 2016-04-01 at 5.39.13 PM ManOfSteel_final_cvr_US-1-610x1002 Godzilla-novel

 

large_9781742837765Another reason for doing novelizations is to attract readers of a different audience. Most commonly seen with films targeted towards children, publishers often create “junior novels”. A publisher that excels at this is Marvel Publishing Worldwide who essentially capture “a flavour of the overall movie to make a terrific product”, (David Gabriel, Sr. V.P of print, sales, and marketing) that is easily marketed to parents who begin to read to their children. This audience is also a fairly reliable one too, as out of the “top 20 grossing movies of 2012, 2013, and 2014…reveals that most of the films that were turned into novels…were sold as junior or young adult titles” (Yahoo! Movies, Chaney). Though not the most lasting, novelizations such as junior novels can nevertheless be relied on for at least some profit. Especially for when the anticipation for a film is high, novelizations simply market themselves (Hazlitt, Sloan).

 

Regardless of being in this tremendously digitally suffocating world, film novelizations continue to be produced and sold. But despite having successful novelizations like the Alien books series, the act of novelizing is often under scrutiny; especially, by critics who “generally dismiss them as routinely commissioned, worthless by-products of the film whose release they accompany” (Mahlknecht, 139). And though the argument for them being as such is completely understandable, there is no denying the success they continue to garner. Dewey Gramer, a writer with 11 novelizations under his name, describes the process as a “dirty business” with extremely short deadlines  (The New York Times, Kobel). Novelizers also have to deal with sudden changes given by the film production team, on top of the short deadlines. For example, while writing the novel for Godzilla, Cox would get phone calls about new scenes shot, and be faxed the script pages. Four months up until the release of the film, Cox was still waiting for changes to be made, which gives a sense of how unpredictable the process of novelizing can be.

 

On the other hand, when novelizations are not directly created by someone transcribing scripts into novel form, they have a better chance of avoiding the scrutiny strict novelizations receive. Touching on a point made earlier about novelizations being a means of finding out more about a film’s story and characters, some instance go even further to even expand on plotlines and give further backstory. When this happens it’s referred to as transmedia storytelling; stories continue to be told (from film and TV) on pages. Since we already discussed novelizations, what will be covered now is how graphic novel tie-ins perpetuate storytelling in ways that are even more meaningful than adaptations from screen to print.

 

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While novelizations give readers insight into details, transmedia storytelling continues stories giving readers even more. In the case of graphic novel versions of TV shows, they not only a way of giving fans more of what they want, but they create and maintain a connection with the readers. Take for example, the series end of Son Of Anarchy. The show’s creator, Kurt Sutter made statement saying that to keep the world of the show in the consciousness of fans, they would have to marry art and commerce (The New York Times, Alter). This in turn led to the creation of the the comic book series, Bratva and it speaks to the built-in audience discussed earlier as you know that fans will show up.

 

 

Another great example of transmedia storytelling through comics is the tie-in comics to the popular BBC American TV show Orphan Black, about one woman’s journey as she discovers she is part of a cloning conspiracy. With a premise like that, you could see how expanding beyond the world of the television screen is beneficial to the story building. The series publisher, IDW Publishing, spoke with one of its writers. She revealed that the show’s creators have developed expansive backstories to the clones on the show, and believed that the comic book medium would be a better way to tell these stories, that would not have worked as well on screen (IDW Publishing).

 

 rsz_screen_shot_2016-04-02_at_25813_pmOrphan-Black-1-600x323

 

With shows ending, like Sons Of Anarchy, and new shows quickly building a fan base like Orphan Black, transmedia storytelling is a sure way to further engage with readers / viewers. And although comic book extensions of shows still receive backlash “as mere merchandise rather than art” (Alter), it does not keep writers, illustrators, and publishers away. It is an extension of the creativity that TV culture has cultivated, and it’s attracting established writers. For example, “Steven Charles Gould, an award-winning science fiction writer, signed on to write novels inspired by James Cameron’s blockbuster Avatar” (Alter).

 

With big name writers and publishers backing up the choice to create comics and novels based off of TV show and films, knowing that there is an existing fan base to tap into, the future of print doesn’t seem too disappointing. Despite the backlash for it being a means of cheap merchandise at airports, there is meaning in the novels and comics tied to films. With all the promotion done for films as well, these novelizations continue to sell themselves; both as a means of detailing stories and giving publishers to make more print books.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources

“adaptation, n.” OED Online. Oxford University Press, March 2016. Web. 30 March 2016.

Alter, Alexandra. “Popular TV Series and Movies Maintain Relevance as Novels.” The New York Times 4 Jan. 2015: A1. Web.  

Chaney, Jen. “What Does the Future Look Like for Movie Novelizations?.” Yahoo! Movies 18 June. 2014. Web.  

Clarke, M. J. “The Strict Maze Of Media Tie-In Novels.” Communication, Culture & Critique 2.4 (2009): 434-456. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Web. 29 Mar. 2016.

Jones, J.R. “You’ve seen the movie — now write the book!.” Chicago Reader 18 Nov. 2011. Web.  

Kobel, Peter. “To Some, a Movie Is Just an Outline For a Book.” The New York Times 1 April. 2011. Web.

Mahlknecht, Johannes. “The Hollywood Novelization: Film As Literature Or Literature As Film Promotion?.” Poetics Today 33.2 (2012): 137-168. Academic Search Complete. Web. 29 Mar. 2016.

Rutledge, Pamela. “What is Transmedia Storytelling?.” Athinklab. N.p., 2016. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.

Sansbury, Jason. “Television Shows Turned Into Comics: Why Comics Excel At Keeping Stories Alive.” Nerds On Earth 24 Oct. 2015. Web.

Sloan, Will. “The Endangered Art of the Movie Novelization.” Hazlitt 20 Feb. 2014. Web.

Suskind, Alex. “Yes, People Still Read Movie Novelizations…And Write Them, Too.” Vanity Fair 27 Aug. 2014. Web.

Vestal, Shannon. “40 Books Becoming 2015 Movies.” MSN 5 April. 2015. Web.

 

Posting a poem instead of a selfie means you are asking people to engage with you at a deeper level, and that sort of subversion is part of poetry’s tradition
— Rishi Dastidar, theguardian

 

poem7With all the information the internet creates for the world to engage with, a surprising type of content is garnering a surprising amount of attention. Poetry is showing a steady trend in reaching readers and growing communities thanks to photo-sharing platform: Instagram. It’s the type of writing that raises eyebrows in book marketing; the peculiar manuscripts generally with fewer words than others, but often require more work to prepare. Poetry, this ‘underdog’ genre of publishing, is getting attention on a photo sharing app because it strategically uses hashtags, is designed to the same taste as what those who are on the app like, and it resembles the short readings that we have become accustomed to.

 

 

 

#NetGen Searches

When the internet came it quickly began sweeping people up and sending them across the web in a matter of a few clicks; it began to change the way people took in information. More images started to populate the digital landscape, communicating with one another essentially became instantaneous, and the internet became a place where short-form writing thrived and continues to do so in the success we see with poetry. With all of these affecting how people see and read, a new generation of readers came to be: the Net Generation, or Digital Natives, who “…have an inherent ability to read images, that ‘they are intuitive visual communicators’ who are ‘able to weave together images, text, and sound in a natural way’ (p. 2.5)…’The Net Generation is more visually literate than earlier generations'” (Journal of Visual Literacy, 2011).

 

Enter the poets of Instagram who appeal to this generation – my generation. Among pictures of heavily filtered sunrises are interjections of ones containing poetry; there is something to be said about a screenshot of words or a picture of someone’s writing on a typewriter. Poetry is as much a visual experience as it is a textual one. Taking it to a highly visual medium like Instagram opens up the possibilities of what can be done to the texts, and ultimately, who will be attracted to it. Take for instance, the.poetry.bandit (left), based here in Vancouver, BC with just over 21,000 followers. His poetry success is not accidental, however. Speaking with the writer himself, he spoke of being precise in how to get work to show up on people’s Instagram feeds.

 

Poets, like the.poetry.bandit, are writers who know that Digital Natives actively seek out what they want to read using a search technique proliferated by the internet: hashtags. #Instapoet, #Instapoetry, #PoetsofInstagram, #igpoets, and many more tags like these are associated with poetry on the app. These terms narrow in on what readers are looking for, weeding out any other writing, and images, that they do not wish to see. This greatly contributes to the success of the genre online as Melanie Figueroa, contributor to the blog: The Poetics Project, says:

 

…Poets have an advantage on Instagram. For published writers to those less established, Instagram—and features of the digital age, like hashtags for one—gives savvy poets the ability to reach a huge pool of readers from all over the world.

 

poem3Essentially speaking the language of the internet, Net Gen readers can get to poetry quicker, without having to pass through the middleman that is the publishing houses. Readers come to the poetry, instead of trying to get poetry to readers as houses try to do when look for a particular audience for a collection of poems. After having many guest speakers throughout the term, the ones touching on the marketing of books were quick to jokingly ask, “Who reads poetry?” when it came to publishing it. Though jokingly said, the idea is still prevalent that the genre is incredibly difficult to market. It’s highly specific, and readers of it are hard to identify. The hashtag works to solve this (left). Where publishers struggle, the same problem is nowhere seen in the digital landscape of Instagram as readers are having no problem discovering poetry there, as it is common to find most poetry accompanied by a slew of hashtags so readers can find them.

 

What hashtags also serve on the Instagram poetry community is establish a readership; identifiable people who fervently follow their favorite ‘Instapoets’. While many publishers ask, “Who reads poetry?”, that question is not so applicable on Instagram. By giving instant access to their writing, these poets can establish an immediate relation to their readers, something that could take a large amount of time and resources to achieve if done through a traditional publishing house’s marketing departments. The levels of engagement are heightened and hashtags open the floodgates for poetry to flow out, directly to readers. Figueroa mentions in the blog post how, because of hashtags, writers “…can begin developing a following early on in their careers before they even have a single thing in print. This completely upturns the typical way that the industry works, where publishers act as ‘gatekeepers'”. Associating images of poetry with hashtags is what lends the Next Gen as such fervent devours of Instapoetry; and example of how floodgates can be opened without the ‘gatekeepers’ of publishing.

The Look of InstaPoetry

poem5Like the.poetry.bandit, All of riojones7‘s writing is greatly visually treated, and at most times written with a typewriter, torn out and captured in the photo. Many poets do this sort of treatment for their work on Instagram. By treating poetry this way, and occasionally with a filter Instagram has built in, poets create their own distinct look; their brand on Instagram. They make their writing eye-popping, echoing poetry’s (and perhaps all writings’) tradition of being intimately produced with this vintage feel. This entire look is one that speaks to the visually literate generation; especially those who simply like ‘nice’ photos. It stops them in their tracks while scrolling. Heavy treatment of poetry on Instagram appeals because it easily attracts Digital Natives on a platform they are extremely familiar with, and adds to the visual experience of reading poetry; something that has always been an important facet of the genre.

 

As Heike Schaefer mentions in the article, Poetry in Transmedial Perspective: Rethinking Intermedial Literary Studies in the Digital Age, digital technologies “…have modified our aesthetic expectations and changed the ways in which…texts are composed, distributed and read today” (Schaefer, 2015). Being able to show poetry for what it looks like in the moment it is produced, and enhancing it with image-altering features, the poetry on Instagram perfectly positions itself as the look that those on the social media platform seek. Followers of these accounts are tremendous fans of the old typewriter look, and the way its photographed. So much so, that the.poetry.bandit recommends any poet starting on Instagram to invest in a typewriter to produce poetry on and then photograph. He says to “…Use hashtags, build a peer group, and let your writing do the talking. Get a typewriter…I think Tyler Knott and RM drake (fellow Instapoets) kind of made it a fad.” His words ring true, as almost all Instapoets with a large following have pictures of their poetry done by typewriting. By using modern digital technologies to capture old forms, poets on Instagram appeal to the Next Gen reader that is highly visually literate.

 

What also makes poetry on Instagram highly appealing to readers is its rawness: the lack of a middleman to edit. Tyler Knott (mentioned earlier by the.poetry.bandit), says that he “…never edits his 17-syllable haiku – ‘because it felt like betraying the exact emotion of the time’ – and Leav says anything she posts online should be considered a first draft” (Qureshi, theguardian). Often times, photos from poets are ones where you can see where the typewriter corrects itself, there are ink smudges, and sometimes even entire lines crossed out. Capturing these moments in a photo has shown how our technology can modify aesthetic appreciation. This especially rings true for poetry as readers of it are often writers as well, and it is nice to see these mistakes where elsewhere an editor may edit them out, or modify the writing to what the house prefers.

 

poem2And what we prefer nowadays in terms of reading is drastically different from what traditional publishing provides. Being surrounded by all this digital content, we have become accustomed to reading shorter texts, and poetry on Instagram fits right into this. Since the platform is primarily a photo-sharing platform, the constraints it immediately puts on writing places poetry at a disadvantage. However, Instapoets turn this limitation into a strength as their writing is better suited to showcase than opposed to other kinds of longer writing that is generally in magazines – online and print (Figeuroa). Even the.poetry.bandit agrees as he says, “the base population that like stuff on IG is here for the quick and dirty feel good poems”. The precision with words poets on Instagram have is what draws readers in and is what enables them to garner followings in such staggering numbers.

 

Take for instance Instapoet, roseclu who has just over 9,000 followers. Along with presenting her poetry with a typewriter, there is also simple hand written work that appeals to readers. Surely, this kind of work can appear in traditional print; however, what makes this excel in Instagram is that the app has an ability to present things in a unique tone which echoes the past. As mentioned earlier, editing poetry on the app with things such as filters, give the writing a vintage feel. In the article The Real Reason People Love Instagram by Adam Farwell he says,

 

The idea that an Instagram photo simply mimics the effects of an old camera is only a baseline appeal for the Instagram app. What really attracts us to the visuals of Instagram is the association we make with the past. In a world visually saturated by media, we crave deeper meaning in our own expression.

And that is exactly what poetry does: it offers meaning in expression. Drawing on the opening quote of this essay saying how posting a poem instead of a selfie is asking viewers to engage on a deeper level, it is clear how a poem that is edited can emanate poetry’s tradition of engaging readers. The purpose of poetry has always been the same; the new medium it is being expressed with just amplifies this and people are taking notice to it.

Conclusion

“…a new generation of young, digitally astute poets whose loyal online followings have helped catapult them onto the best-seller lists, where poetry books are scarce.”
The New York Times

The Instapoetry phenomenon has gone on to garner the attention of traditional and non-traditional publishing houses as well. In a recent article in The New York Times, “Web Poets’ Society: New Breed Succeeds in Taking Verse Viral”, Tyler Knott has been noted to release his first collection of haikus after being noticed on Instagram. Speaking to the increasing popularity of poets on Instagram, The Times says that the poems, “…are reaching hundreds of thousands of readers, attracting the attention of literary agents, editors and publishers, and overturning poetry’s longstanding reputation as a lofty art form with limited popular appeal.” This goes to show how an art form, that has long been frustrating to publish, can gain new momentum with new technology.

 

The Times does acknowledge, however, that “Instapoets will probably now shake up the literary establishment”. Instead, they are working to reshape what poetry means today; that it is not in any sort of decline, and that readers of it are becoming increasingly easier to reach. This is seen in the take-off of some who have landed books with publishing houses. Instapoet langleav has landed a literary agent and US publisher, and her collection Love & Misadventure remains the top selling love poems on Amazon. With poets like Tyler Knott and Lang Leav, “…three of the top 10 bestselling poetry books in the US at present have been written by poets at the forefront of the Instapoet movement” (Qureshi, theguardian).

 

What has always been a genre that most likely give publishers the most grief, poetry has found a way to thrive on its own, underneath the massive waves of the internet. Being put into a platform that would not be thought of as a place to go read things, writing poetry, and capturing it on Instagram works. It utilizes a search technique that New Gen readers are familiar with, and by doing so it easily accessing audiences that would be difficult to find by means of a traditional publishing house. Also, it establishes an early readership; something useful for those Instapoets who could potentially be noticed by a publisher.

 

It may not be like the praised poetry of the classics: T.S Elliot, William Carlos Williams, etc., but the Instapoet movement is one to redefine what poetry means to readers today. As the.poetry.bandit puts it, readers are “here for the quick and dirty feel good poems”. Since our generation is accustomed to reading such web-based writing, we might as well make some of it poetry in a medium that is accessible and most of all, known to try and make some publishers not frown so much when they think of how to get poetry to people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources

Brumberger, Eva. “Visual Literacy and the Digital Native: An Examination of the Millennial Learner.” Journal of Visual Literacy 30, no.1 (2011): Article Excerpt. https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-268067247/visual-literacy-and-the-digital-native-an-examination

 

Figueroa, Melanie. “Poetry In The Age of Instagram.” Last modified September 6, 2014. http://thepoeticsproject.com/2014/09/06/poetry-age-instagram/comment-page-1/

 

Schaefer, Heike. “Poetry in Transmedial Perspective: Rethinking Intermedial Literary Studies in the Digital Age.” Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Film and Media Studies 10, no. 1 (2015): 169-182.

 

Qureshi, Huma. “How do I love thee? Let me Instagram it.” theguardian November 23, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/nov/23/instapoets-instagram-twitter-poetry-lang-leav-rupi-kaur-tyler-knott-gregson

Context, Not Container – Seminar Notes

By Josh Oliveira

Metadata

Book" A Futurist's Manifesto

All Rights Reserved, O’Reilly Media

Title: Content, Not Container – Seminar Notes
Notes Author: Josh Oliveira
Essay Author: Brian O’Leary
*Found In: Book: A Futurist’s Manifesto
*Publisher: O’Reilly
*Published: August 20, 2012
*Editors: Hugh McGuireBrian O’Leary
*ISBN: 978-1449305604
For: Publishing 800
Program: Master of Publishing
School: Simon Fraser University
Date: October 19, 2015
Summary: In his essay “Context, Not Container,” Brian O’Leary, a publishing guru at Magellan Media Consulting, argues that, while content, container, and context have always formed the basis of publishing, modern publishers are stuck in an outdated paradigm that places container first and context last. In truth, their places should be reversed. These seminar notes will help explicate these and other points.

Definitions

  • Containers: These are the form or mediums in which any publishing is transmitted. Example include books, magazines, websites, newspapers, and ebooks. These containers may appear rigid, but are highly mutable, even interchangeable, so that the same or similar information could be found in numerous containers. O’Leary argues our tendency as publishers is to focus overly on the container.
  • Content: Content is the true product that the publishing industry seeks to monetize. It consists mainly of written words that create meaning and provide information. In recent years, all forms of content, including book publishing have become “content in browsers.” Even print books now exist increasingly online, as supported by recent sales numbers released by goodereader.com62% of all fiction books of any format sold in the US in 2014 were sold online
  • Context: In the physical world, in which publishing once solely existed, O’Leary states “intermediaries like booksellers, librarians, and reviewers” provided context. In publishing’s increasingly online marketplace, however, context refers to “tagged content, research, footnoted links, sources, and audio and video background, as well as title-level metadata.”

Arguments

An Emerging Threat

  • Current workflow hierarchy considers container first and context last. Whereas they should should start with context so that “both discovery and utility are enhanced” and see “containers as an option, not a starting point.”
  • Content fluidity should be stressed to make all content more accessible to users “across platforms, users, and uses.” This will open more opportunity for engagement.
  • Nimble upstarts put context first by offering interconnectivity as the key feature of what they publish. Ex., Craigslist.
  • Readers increasingly want discoverability, which can no longer be seen as a “cost or add-on.”
  • Digital disruption has made container convergence inevitable. So former newspaper and magazine content must now be discoverable wherever readers want it.
  • Falling barriers have created new entrants into publishing, including former marketers and even readers! To continue to offer value, traditional publishers must master context not content. Ex. Huffington Post

The Challenge of Container First

  • XML allows tagging of content in web documents. It is most useful for cookbooks, education, and travel, and least useful for novels.
  • “Born Digital” Entrants are beating traditional publishers on context, reaching niche readers easier.
  • Container-focused publishers try to impose an old hierarchy on the digital space. Their use of metadata, SEO, and syndication offer insufficient context.
  • Content overload means we can no longer expect readers to find us. Publishers must start with context to make content discoverable and should consider containers outputs, not starting points.

Making Content Agile, Discoverable, and Accessible

  • Container focus conflates format with brand. The Wall Street Journal is a brand not a newspaper.
  • Container myopia is nearsightedness that overestimates importance of container. Only by eliminating this can publishing recognize it is the “content solutions business”.
  • Open API (application programming interface) offers users freedom to utilize content as needed. Printed book technology predates API. Refusal to accept demand for open API leads content to “obscurity, at best.”
  •  Example: Student crowd sources schedule data because the school did not make it available. Lesson: People will find data, so why not just give it to them? 

The Consequence of a Bad API

  • Piracy results from bad API. If someone wants the content, they’ll get it. So a publisher’s job is to monetize the acquisition process. If readers want the printed book or ebook, sell it. But if they are willing to read it on a website, monetize the space using ads, links, offers of sale, and optimal web positioning.
  • The best API companies know to avoid coming between readers and content, especially in terms of time and effort. This is the key to Amazon’s success.

The Emerging Role of Context

  • Context evolving: Past context systems like Dewy and BISAC had less content to organize. Only online databases can contextualize all that data now.
  • The editorial role remains relevant post-container because proper context can only be established by relevant, deep, and consistent tagging.
  • Publishing needs heart transplant to remove containers as central concern and replace it with context, which will require new workflows.

Implications of Content Abundance

  • Content must be open and accessible. Or readers will go elsewhere. Compliance not optional.
  • Publishers must compete on context. Content must be as discoverable as possible.
  • Publisher’s can’t compete on price. Too many are willing to give content away. Still, publishers must make content broadly available at various price points to increase engagement.
  • Publishers can help readers manage abundance by organizing content in context. This can be done via highly specific imprints, as Harlequin has done well for years.
  • Content must be multi-use and recombinable as downward price pressure make single- use, one-container content too expensive. Selling small chunks of larger content will be important.
  • Changing workflow will require retraining. In the future, publishing must produce contextualized content for all containers, not set containers of content with added context, as before.

Theory in Practice

Brian O’Leary co-edited the book of essays in which “Context, Not Container” appears, called Book: A Futurist’s Manifesto. It is available for sale and to read in its entirety on PressBooks.com, a Montreal-based company providing ebook and print conversions for authors. That’s where we accessed it. The co-editor of the book, Hugh McGuire, founded PressBooks.

The book available from various online sellers, including the publisher’s own store, in all typical formats. On Amazon.com, it is additionally available as an ebook rental for under $1 per week. The essay further appears in a modified form on Mr. O’Leary’s website and appears to be the basis for some of his speaking engagements.

All this shows deep commitment to the article’s demands for context primacy, easy accessibility, various engagement points, container mutability, broad distribution, and recombination of content.

Questions

  1. Do we agree with O’Leary’s argument that the influence of containers is waning while that of context has increased?
  2. What are some ways publishers already seek to provide context? What more can they do?
  3. One of O’Leary’s premises is that piracy results primarily from bad API. With that in mind, how might authors make their content more available without necessarily giving it away?