Why e-book sales are declining? – It’s more than just an increased price

According to the Pew Research Center, printed books are hanging on and remain significantly more popular than e-book in 2016 (Perrin, 2016). It is welcome news for publishers, who have suffered from the drastic change in the e-book landscape for over five years. Perrin (2016) reports, “When people reach for a book, it is much more likely to be a traditional print book than a digital product. Fully 65% of Americans have read a print book in the last year, more than double the share that has read an e-book (28%).” Media remarks that the deceasing in e-book sales is resulted from increasing of its cost: “The biggest reasons why e-book had such a bad year … [is] the return agency pricing. This dramatically increase[s] the cost in e-books by 10 to 30 percent and people [buy] less” (Kozlowski, 2016), “the big 5 publishers, which includes Penguin/Random House, Macmillan, Simon and Schuster, Harper Collins and Hachette implemented a new pricing mechanism that has seen the price of e-books increase from $9.99 to $14.99, or even $17.99″ (Kozlowski, 2016). However, a decrease in sales is not just resulted from the increased price. The recent articles, which are published over the last 4 months, have revealed that the lack of concentration and comprehension on e-book and its digital text, the use of multi-purpose devices, and the experience of digital fatigue are reasons for readers’ major transition to the print book. From the experience of reading an e-book, readers have realized that reading a print book helps concentrating and comprehending the texts better. The lack of concentration is the major issue of reading an e-book because more readers are now tending to choose smartphone, tablets, and computers, which are considered as multi-purpose mobile devices, to read the book. Lastly, many e-book readers have noted that they are suffering from digital fatigue. These three consequences have not only led e-book to be a fad but also changed consumers’ preference back to print books.

Throughout their experiences in digital reading, readers have realized that reading an e-book on a digital device results a lack of concentration and comprehension. Kozlowski (2016) highlights, e-books are inherently flawed because they have fewer spatial landmark, making it harder to concentrate. Numerous studies have revealed that it’s hard to concentrate when reading an e-book and this inhibits reading comprehension, because our brains cannot properly pause and digest what we are reading on digital devices. The chairman of National Endowment for the Arts, Dana Gioia states that reading a book requires a degree of active attention and engagement (Albanese, 2016). This is possible with the print book, but not with the e-book. Andrew Piper, the author of Book was There (2012), illustrates how reading a print book is at variance with an e-book. He first argues, “Books, like hands, hold our attention” (p. 7). The margins of the book give authors and readers a space to pinpoint the important information. It enables readers to concentrate more on highlighted information. However, it is hard to know where its contours are when reading a book with digital text. Piper remarks that digital texts are somewhere, but where they are has become increasingly complicated, abstract, even forbidden (p. 15). This shows how readings that are available on the digital have made harder for readers to decode texts whereas print books are grasping readers’ attention. On top of that, Piper also claims “the book’s handiness is a sign of its reliability. Books are things that can be trusted, a fact that has much to do with the nature of their tactility” (p. 5). The book has a strong ability to conjoin the different faculties of touch, sight and sound into a single medium and its ability helps residing within a more diverse ecology of information (p. 7). He strongly believes that these three senses are the best guarantee that a message will be received, that individuals will arrive at a sense of shared meaning. On the other hand, readers cannot feel the impression of the digital: “The touch of the page brings us into the world, while the screen keeps us out” (Piper, 2012, p. 15). Although digital devices have enabled readers to access to a book more convenient, the e-book and its digital text are making harder to concentrate and decode text compared to the print book.

Moreover, Perrin’s critical analysis of the book reading and its trend in 2016 has uncovered that Americans increasingly turn to multipurpose devices which include smartphones, tablet and computers rather than dedicated e-readers when they engage with e-book content (2016). Between 2011 and 2016, the use of tablet computer has increased by 11 percent and smartphones has increased by 8 percent. On the other hands, dedicated e-readers only increased by 1 percent. Unlike the e-reader, which is primarily designed for the purpose of reading books, smartphones, tablets and computers are mainly designed for multi-functionality such as listening, socializing, communicating, and gaming. Mike Shartzkin, the founder and chief executive of the Idea Logical Company argues, “As more and more people are reading on multifunction devices, there are all kinds of temptations that intrude on book-reading time” (Alter, 2016). Peter Hildick-Smith, the president of Codex also claims that electronic devices are optional for reading books. He uncovers that the current range of e-book reading devices, including smartphones, tablets, and dedicated e-readers, has not delivered the quality long-form reading experience needed to supplant print, even with e-books’ major price and convenience advantages (Milliot, 2016). Piper (2012) also comments, “reading devices become tools of mobilization rather than iteration. Reading is nomadic rather than domestic” (p. 55). These evidences indicate that books that are available on digital devices can interrupt the flow of reading. For example, when reading a book on the smartphone, you will be easily distracted by notifications from your social media and emails as well as phone call. Multifunctional devices are not made for reading, but American readers still prefer reading on their mobile devices, which they carry all the time.

Lastly, Milliot (2016) exposes that a new e-book consumer phenomenon has remarkably emerged, which is called digital fatigue. Piper (2012) depicts fatigue as one of the basic conditions of the digital: “when we look at screens, we become prematurely tired, the optical equivalent of carpal tunnel syndrome” (p. 36). According to the survey that was conducted by the Codex (Milliot, 2016), among book buyers who spends almost five hours on their daily personal on screens, 25% of book buyers, including 37% of those 18-24 years old has stated that they want to spend less time on their digital devices. Consumers always have the option to choose physical books, they indicate a preference to return to print book. 59 percent of those who said they are reading fewer e-books cited a preference for print as the main reason for switching back to physical books. Reading a book in a smaller screen, brightness of the screen and movable text have led readers to a mental fatigue, which makes it harder to read and concentrate. Peter Hildick-Smith exposes that consumers tiring of their digital-device experience will have further digital fatigue, leading to continued e-book sales erosion (Milliot, 2016).

Majority of people predicted that the print book will be soon deteriorated as the e-book, which was initially launched by Amazon and Barnes and Noble in 2007 and 2010, emerges and changes the reading behaviour. However, the study conducted by Pew Research Center reveals that it is a false assumption. PRC’s survey conveys that readers are predominantly turning to printed books over digital books and e-book sales are gradually dropping because of the increased price. However, recent articles unveil that people tend not to read the e-book as a major reading format due to the lack of concentration and comprehension, the increased use of multi-purpose digital devices, and the sign of digital fatigue. Unlike print books, which grasp readers’ attention, e-books are much harder to focus and comprehend its text due to its spatial landmark. E-books which make it easy to download and read instantly on digital devices and readers’ preference to read books on digital devices starts to expand due to its mobility and convenience. This has resulted reading to become an optional activity and get easily distracted by the notification from the email, text message and social media. The increased number of readers suffering from a digital fatigue is also the case in decline of e-book sales. Readers who report the experience of tiredness are more likely to return to print book. It is interesting to see what will happen to the e-book in 2017.


Work Cited

Albanese, A. P. (2016, Sept 16). Print or digital, it’s reading that matters. Publishers Weekly. Retrieved from

Alter, A. (2016, Sept 23). Audiobooks Turn More Readers Into Listeners as E-books Slips. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Kozlowski, M. (2016, Aug 9). HarperColins reports e-book sales are down. Good e-Reader. Retrieved from

Kozlowski, M. (2016, Sept 17). E-books are on the decline and people are switching back to print. Good e-Reader. Retrieved from

Milliot, J. (2016, June 17). As e-book sales decline, digital fatigue grows. Publishers Weekly. Retrieved from

Perrin, A. (2016, Sept 1). Book Reading 2016. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

Piper, A. (2012). Book was there: Reading in electronic times. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mediations and the Vitality of Media Life after New Media: Mediation as a Vital Process by Kember, S. and Zyliska, J.

In the first chapter of “Life after New Media: Mediation as a Vital Process (2015),” Sarah Kember and Joanna Zyliska have drawn theoretical foundation and applied case study for understanding the old and new media and its dynamic processes of mediation. New media, which authors define as ‘a set of discrete objects to understanding media, old and new, in terms of the interlocked and dynamic processes of mediation’ (p. 1) have resulted a division of the world into categories, also called false divisions. Our limited dualism or binary or oppositional thinking such as analog vs. digital, readerly vs. writerly, mass vs. participatory, constructs ontological conceptualizations of them (p. 3). The authors then address the concept of ‘originary technicity,’ which proposes, “We have always been technical,” in other words, “we have always been mediated” (p.18). They argue that mediation is interconnected with ‘life’. Their study concludes that “mediation” is being-with and emerging-with the technological world.

The initial aspect of the term “new media” is ‘newness.’ However, authors highlight that the newness of the products and processes that get described as “new media” should not be taken at face value (p. 3) because their meaning is different. They express “newness” functions as a commercial imperative (p. 4). For example, new products or services demand to upgrade computers, smartphones and any devices in order to exhibit the one’s advanced labour and social relations. However, authors point out two key terms illustrating “new media,” which are converging and interactive. It is aware that new media are categorized as more active consumption whereas old media such as newspaper, radio and books as passive consumption. However, according to the reading, authors have depicted one of the old media, book as a medium that isn’t different from new media: “… a philosophical plane of immanence or a fictional world of novel has always required an active participation and contribution from the reader, not to mention the efforts of all those who have been involved in their editing, design, production and distribution. Arguably, books are thus as hypertextual, immersive and interactive as any computerized media (p. 4)”. Therefore, it is significant that old media is already interactive and converged and thus there is no borderline between new and old media. Although Gary Hall, the author of Digitize This Book!, demonstrates old media, including book is inherently instable and becomes obfuscated since it is difficult to find interactivity between authors and readers and more leaning toward to creativeness and collaboration of “new media”, this point of view enhances the binary concept, resulted in linear, cause-and-effect way thinking, which is the major problem of making false division. Thus, its binary and an cause-and-effect thinking about media and the process of mediation must be eliminated.

The authors then bring the concept of ‘originary technicity’ by illustrating the history of Greeks by Stiegler. This history uncovers that human is a technological being: human being that has the power to create but also relies on external elements to fully realize his being (p. 16). He states, “orignary technicity can therefore be understood as a condition of openness to what is not part the human, of having to dependent on alterity – be it in the form of gods, other humans, fire or utensils – to fully constitute and actualize one’s being” (p.17-18). This statement underlines that technology was and still is part of us (human) and we have always been technical or mediated. According to Bergson, mediation can be seen as another term for “life,” for being-in and emerging-with world (p. 22). The authors believe that the possibility of the emergence of forms always new or potentiality to generate unprecedented connections and unexpected events (p. 24).

This reading has changed the way I think of new media and the process of mediation. As a student in the field of Communication, the concept of digital media is understood as more structuralized and more technologically advanced version of old media, ensuring there is a significant transition from old to new media. However, throughout the study of philosophical literatures in this reading, it is significant that digital media is a part of a long historical trajectory. Stieger’s study of the Greeks is one of the examples reveals that human has an instinct power, which endures and reaches for what is not in human, from creating tools to making fire. Therefore, it is true that human himself is a tekhne, or technology for achievement.

Overall, it is impossible to speak about media without indicating the process of mediation. The limited dualism and false divisions of old and new media have been problematic in understanding the actual meaning of media. Given the philosophical works, it is significant that media need to be observed as particular tekhne, which enables the “temporary “fixings” of technological and other forms of becoming (p. 21)”. The authors remark, “by saying the logic of technology (as well as use, investment and so on) underpins and shapes mediation, we are trying to emphasize the forces at work in the emergence of media and ongoing processes of mediation” (p. 21). As mentioned in the introduction, the term “mediation” means ‘being-with’ and ‘emerging-with’ the technological world. The lifeness, or vitality of media indicates that human and media are strongly interrelated. More specifically, media in terms of the process of mediation has been already associated with the world. Thus, we should not make a cause-and-effect way thinking or linear thinking when understanding the media.

Work Cited

Kember, S., & Zylinska, J. (2015). Mediation and the Vitality of Media. In Life after New Media:Mediation as a Vital Process. Cambridge: The MIT Press. 1-28.

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